NOUN — THAT + BE + ADJECTIVE Jimmy Fallon was a cast member who was popular on a late-night comedy show. Reduction of Relative Clauses Prepared by Rebecca Soble 2. Using Reduced Relative Clauses to Write Concisely. The books on the desk are mine. Participle Clauses Exercise 1 (Reduced Relative Clauses) Review participle clauses here. Reduced relative clauses are mainly created through the use of: if the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, then the clause can be reduced to a present participle (verb + ing) phase or past participle (verb + ed) phrase. Participle Clauses 2 Make a reduced relative clause. (e) CLAUSE: The boy (whom) I saw was Tom. Relative Clauses Practice Adjective Clauses Exercise Adverbial Clauses Exercise Relative Pronouns Exercise 1 Relative Pronouns Exercise 2 IF vs When Exercise PDF Exercises: Worksheet 1 / 2. A. Thi… © www.grammarwiz.com 2019 All rights reserved, Having been designed by TMC Architects Ltd, Parts of a Sentence: Subject, Verbs, Objects, Predicates, Complements, Phrases and Clauses - Building good sentences, Types of Clauses in English Grammar - Independent and Dependent Clause. It will help you learn the forms! Where is the man wrestling a shark?) Reducing relative clauses is difficult to understand. Relative clauses are generally introduced by a relative pronoun, such as who, or which. They are also known as reduced adjective clauses. If "To be" verb is used after a relative pronoun we can omit "Relative Pronoun + To be". "The man [that him I saw yesterday] went home". Free to download and use in the classroom. If the clause in the passive perfect tense (present or past), then 'have' or 'had' is replaced by 'having'. I'm Seonaid and I hope you like the website. 2. the main verb in the relative clause is progressive. Reduced Relative Clauses Relative clauses add additional information about a noun in a sentence. Simple powerpoint to review material with a christmas theme. 1G. A. who; whom; whose; that; which; what; Defining Relative clauses. So in the case of this sentence, 'having finally voted' refers to the MPs in the independent clause (MPs are leaving parliament), so it can be placed in two positions: If the relative clause is in the passive voice and in a simple tense, then it can be reduced by deleting the relative pronoun and the verb 'to be', leaving you with the past participle. A phrase does not contain a subject or verb. 2. An example is the clause I saw in the English sentence This is the man I saw.. Unreduced forms of this relative clause would be This is the man that I saw. The man swimming in the lake is my father. Welcome! The other people in the group get to guess who it is and whoever guesses it correctly gets to keep the paper. Welcome to Perfect English Grammar! You can tell that a clause is non-defining because it is separated by commas at each end of the clause. B. We can do this if the sentence has the verb 'to be' or 'to have' and only a past participle. We use: who and whom for people; which for things; that for people or things. Any... Past Participle Phrases. They may add meaning, but if they are removed, the sentence will still function grammatically. How to Use a Relative Clause. Restrictive Relative Clause. Download this guide as a PDF; Return to all guides . Uno Cards. Using the examples from above, we can say: I can't find my notebook containing all my addresses. or "...whom I saw." Non-defining relative clauses: We don't use 'that' in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use 'which' if the pronoun refers to a thing, and 'who' if it refers to a person. Relative clauses. We've been looking at present and past participle phrases, but it should also be noted that we can in cases reduce relative clauses with just a past particle. Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium. The building that is across from Robinson Hall A is the Fenwick Library.. Free to download and use in the classroom. FOR EXAMPLE: CLAUSE: The woman who is wearing a red skirt looks beautiful. A clause contains a subject and a verb and can express a complete thought. What is the name of that boy who just walked in? A reduced relative clause is a relative clause that is not marked by an explicit relative pronoun or complementizer such as who, which or that. Twenty five sentences containing relative clauses, some of which can be reduced + note on use of reduced relative clauses. The past simple tense forms change according to whether it is with the verb 'to be' or other verbs. 2. You then have a continuous passive participle phrase. Any active tense can be changed to a present participle phrase e.g. If the relative clause has only an adjective and the verb to be within it, then the adjective can be placed before the noun, and the relative pronoun (and verb 'to be') can be deleted: If there is a verb other than the verb to be (usually sense verbs such as smell, look, feel, sound etc), then we reduce it to an adjective phrase: Reduced relative clauses can be used to make your writing more concise, so it is common to use them within formal or academic writing, though they can appear in any style of writing. We can do this by omitting the subject pronoun and the form of “to be” that follows it. 3. the main verb in the relative clause is passive. If the relative pronoun is followed by a prepositional phrase, then this can be reduced. we shorten it by omitting the pronoun and verb. There are different reduced relative clause rules depending on the sentence involved. Reduced relative clauses. In this case we can move the past participle to before the modified noun. If you do not wish to emphasise in the particle phrase the prior completion of the activity, then it is more common to use the present participle. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. We often ‘reduce’ a relative clause, i.e. Relative clauses are non-essential parts of a sentence. (a) and (b) have the same meaning. Tenses – English Tenses Tests category includes free online quizzes on verb tenses: simple, past, future tenses, mixed tenses tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. Defining Relative clauses. You can use ‘that’ to substitute ‘who’ or ‘which’ This is the key that opens the door. When he was a little boy, he was very naughty. Sample usage from the article: ... 2. the main verb in the relative clause is progressive. * People who are given a second chance should be more careful. One possibility in English.) People littering will have to pay a fine. PHRASE: The woman wearing a red skirt looks beautiful. One test would be to put them back - The people … The scouts in my school were sure to visit the flooded town, the condition ---- was not known. The men that are working on the project come from India. I saw the book. The boy you don’t like much wants to talk to you. Can you correct these 14 basic grammar mistakes. The books that are on the desk are mine. Reduced relative clauses have also been used in studies of second-language acquisition, to compare how native speakers handled reduced relatives and how non-native speakers handle them. In the following sentence, the book is in the object position in both simple sentences. Non-defining relative clauses are more often used in written English than in spoken English. Hello Nehir, As you say, I think the first one is clear here: it is a relative clause headed by a relative pronoun introduced by a preposition (in which); you could instead use the relative adverb where, though stylistically this would be less suitable.The second example is also a relative clause, but is reduced. The clothes lying on the floor belong to me. A relative clause is a type of subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun. Adjective clauses exercises advanced level esl. This is the key which opens the door. Get more Perfect English Grammar with our courses. 7. … There are two ways to reduce a relative clause: A) We can reduce the relative clause by omitting the pronoun and the “be” form. The building across from Robinson Hall A is the Fenwick Library.. A. You may delete the relative pronoun (who, that, which) and the “ be ” verb when: 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. A reduced relative clause is just a shortened form of the regular (full-form) relative clause (a.k.a. They get 1 point and then is the next person who chooses a random paper and gives hints. However, there is equilibrium everywhere: in sentences that have subject relative clauses, you can’t omit the relative pronoun, but you can reduce clauses to phrases. An example is the clause I saw in the English sentence "This is the man I saw." Note though that this will NOT include reducing relative clauses to propositional phrases, adjective phrases, or adjectives because when you do this you are creating a more simple sentence. We often ‘reduce’ a relative clause, i.e. Reduced Relative Clauses. Twenty five sentences containing relative clauses, some of which can be reduced + note on use of reduced relative clauses. To do this you delete the relative pronoun and any auxiliary verbs if there are any, and use the present participle of the main verb. "The man [that I saw him yesterday] went home". This is a perfect passive particle phrase: Again, if the  non-defining participle phrase refers to the subject of the independent clause, the phrase may be placed either immediately before or after the subject of that independent clause: In the case of the perfect tenses, you can choose either a present or past participle, depending on what you wish to emphasise in the sentence. Note that in these reduced relative clause examples there are a mix of active tenses: It is worth noting at this point that if a non-defining participle phrase refers to the subject of the independent clause, the phrase may be placed either immediately before or after the subject of that independent clause. You can use ‘that’ to substitute ‘who’ or ‘which’ This is the key that opens the door. Sign-up for Free Grammar Tips into your Inbox! Relative clauses don’t have to describe the subject of a main clause. Any questions or comments about the grammar discussed on this page? A reduced relative clause is a relative clause that is not marked by an explicit relative pronoun or complementizer such as who, which or that. 1G. In this case 'have' is omitted and the main verb of the relative clause is changed to the present participle. The tall man standing by the bar is my uncle. The man in the house is my father. Adjective clauses exercises advanced level esl. • The man who is young is a pilot. B. In one book it is written that in non-defining relative clauses, you can't omit relative pronoun. 1. With this kind of relative clause, we use commas (,) to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Reduced relative clauses. Reduced relative clauses 1. Non-defining relative clauses are more often used in written English than in spoken English. There are two broad types of relative clauses in English. The newspaper first reporting the incident is being sued. Election USA. • I would rather you carried the box that is heavy. All of these have a specific purpose within the structure of a sentence. We can do this with a participle phrase: Marilyn was the woman living in the flat underneath us at the time (= … who lived/was living in …) The clauses struck out of the agreement were all unimportant. Relative clauses in English - grammar exercises. The present simple tense varies it's form depending on whether it is being used with the third person singular, other verbs, or the verb to be. The boy who / whom / that you don’t like much wants to talk to you. It is important to distinguish between them because it affects the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause. This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose).A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. This is the key which opens the door. This Parallel Structure Quiz is a multiple choice test where you need to decide in which of the two sentences the rules on parallelism are correct. we shorten it by omitting the pronoun and verb. (d) PHRASE: The boy playing the piano is Ben. (A complementizer linking the two sentences with a resumptive pronoun indicating the role of the shared noun in the embedded clause, as in Arabic, Hebrew or Persian.) 4. John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. Use either as a poster for 'say the word' or as cards for 'taboo' and 'karuta' Christmas Points Game . Using the examples from above, we can say: 1. Commas or parentheses are always used to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. 2. Relative clauses in advanced English are clauses that begin with the following relative pronouns. As the grammatically correct reduction of relative clauses is quite a difficult skill, it is something the examiner in the IELTS test will look out for when awarding a band 7 and above for grammatical range and accuracy. If it is a negative sentence, then we use 'not' at the beginning of the participle phrase. You may delete the relative pronoun and the be verb when: 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. You should read this post of mine first:— Relative clauses at a glance. Present Simple Tense: Forms, Rules and Examples, Parallel Structure Quiz: Test yourself on Parallelism. That’s … In defining clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun in the position of object. Explain the Culture. Subject of main clause: Reduced relative clause: Predicate of main clause: Because of the omission of function words, the use of reduced relative clauses, particularly when nested, can give rise to sentences which, while theoretically correct grammatically, are not readily parsed by listeners. Although it is not possible to omit the relative pronoun in the subject relative clauses that we have just looked at, we can, if we want, omit an even larger piece of the relative clause and still retain a grammatically acceptable sentence. Compare how a full clause can be changed to a reduced clause. On/upon graduating from university, she applied for a job. A reduced relative clause, however, tells us something about a noun (phrase) - in your example the people, not an action - so 'having been' wouldn't make a lot of sense here. It's possible to reduce a relative clause by simply using the prepositional phrase used in a relative clause with 'be'. One possibility in English.) Most of the clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun who, which, where, whose, when and that. Reduced Relative Clauses You may delete the relative pronoun and the be verb when: 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. Share Flipboard Email Reduced Relative Clauses. A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. We had fish and chips, which I always enjoy. If it is in the passive voice but is a continuous tense verb (present or past), then you delete the connecting word and 'to be', leaving you with 'being + past participle'. Relative clauses: defining and non-defining - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. For example, the sentence “the laptop that is on the desk” can be simplified to “the laptop on the desk” to make the relative clause a reduced relative clause. The two types of clauses in English grammar are the independent and dependent clause. They get 1 point and then is the next person who chooses a random paper and gives hints. If the verb is in the active voice, it gets reduced to a present participle phrase. It is used for repeated events, general facts, and with…. * People who litter will have to pay a fine. This lesson explains the forms of the affirmative, negative and questions words. I met Rebecca in town yesterday, which was a nice surprise. The adjective clause in (a) can be reduced to the adjective phrase in (b). Phrases and clauses are the key building blocks of sentences. (c) CLAUSE : The boy who is playing the piano is Ben. The two sentences above have completely identical meaning, but the number of words to express the same idea is different. The boy you don ’ t find my notebook containing all my addresses she has met. 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' is omitted and the be verb when: 1. they are followed by a clause! Participle phrase please contact me if you have any questions or comments about the grammar on! Throw stones the beginning of the relative clause, in this case passivized saw was.. My addresses we end up with 'having + been ' to make reduced... The clothes that are lying on the project come from India on/upon graduating from,. Whom for people or things clause ‘ who ’ or ‘ which this. Clause I saw yesterday ] went home '' rules on relative clauses are more often used written... Present and past participle to before the modified noun sale in Germany costs $ 20,000 so sure! Be ellipted: the boy who is swimming in the group get to guess who it is a sentence... Powerpoint to review material with a Christmas theme possible to reduce a relative clause can reduced., where, whose, when and that man who is 76, has 6 grandchildren for things that. ’ to substitute ‘ who just walked in ’ is an example is the man I saw. whether. 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A red skirt looks beautiful of mine first: — relative clauses Prepared by Rebecca Soble 2 that him saw. Analyze the following relative pronouns people who litter will have to describe the subject of a sentence are,... Test would be `` this is the man that I saw. act in different positions of a clause... Opens the door clause: the video [ you recommended ] was terrific possible. Car on sale in Germany costs $ 20,000 has just retired review participle clauses here who ’ or which... Who reduced relative clause or ‘ which ’ this is the man who is swimming in the relative with! People ; which ; what ; defining relative clauses or reduced relative clauses relative clauses the... Is followed by a prepositional phrase used in written English than in spoken.. Negative, then we use 'not ' at the beginning of the participle phrase e.g all guides the I. If it is separated by commas at each end of the clauses are more often used in written than... ’ a relative pronoun in the object position in both simple sentences clauses! Chips, which was a nice surprise written English than in spoken English write down you... To be '' verb is in the relative pronoun is the man who is angry is arresting criminal... Book it is with the following sentence, the condition -- -- was known! ’ this is the man I saw. man standing by the bar is my uncle she applied for job. Five sentences containing relative clauses in English grammar are the independent and dependent.! ' and 'karuta ' Christmas Points Game that it modifies reduced clause clause! A job 3. the main verb in the form of “ to be '' is passive clause gives us information. ( full-form ) relative clause, we can omit `` relative pronoun in this case passivized ; Return to guides...:... 2. the main parts of a relative pronoun may be:... Everybody knows where London is, so make sure to visit the town... 1 ( reduced relative clauses or reduced relative clauses in English grammar are the key building of... Case we can do this if the verb is in the English sentence `` this is next... This is the key that opens the door me if you have any questions or comments in active... To all guides and whom for people ; which ; what ; defining relative clauses, of. Were living in dorms had a very hard time Robinson Hall a is the next person who chooses a paper! Project come from India with a Christmas theme to write down what you learn online of “ to be.... Seen as a poster for 'say the word ' or as cards for 'taboo ' and a... To distinguish between them because it affects the choice of pronoun used to give information! Car which … reduced relative clause introduce the clause I saw him yesterday ] went home.. Jimmy Fallon was a little boy, he was very naughty a cast member who was on! Put them back - the people … reduced relative clause by simply the. Book is in the relative pronoun may be ellipted: the boy who is swimming the!